S. Amir Kohan

Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE)

ADDIE, as it is known, stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate.
In practice, evaluation can happen at each of the four primary stages of activity.
And, modifications of revisions to the training program can result from each evaluation
undertaken.

Analysis

In this phase, data is received and collected to identify where there may be a lack of
productivity or gaps in desired performance. Individually, or within groups, this assessment
will point the way to what specific knowledge, skills, and abilities are lacking and need to
be addressed for training and development objectives.

Cultural Influences on Analysis Culture is a two-edged sword. There is the culture of
the organization that explains values and norms for behavior. Then there is the culture
of each individual employee’s background. People who come from America are going
to see things differently from those who come from Brazil, India, or Russia. Cultural
experiences may easily influence how employees behave on the job. And, it is the task
of the training organization to create the ability to merge the organization’s culture with
employee backgrounds to accomplish the organizational objectives.

Design
Training design is the response to gap analysis performed in the first stage of the ADDIE
model. The initial information from the assessment phase is decided upon for course
content, delivery methods, and tactics for delivery. The result is an outline of what the
training design will be and the order of presentation.

Goals and Objectives Each training effort should begin with a statement of objectives.
These objectives should answer the question, “What will participants be able to do
when they have completed the training?” Identifying those specific goals will enable the
subsequent creation of training content, including experiential exercises.

Cultural Influences on Design Culture can play an important role in the design of training
programs when it is known that a large portion of the training participant population
will be from a specific cultural background. Customer service representative training may
need to explain the reasons why customers in the United States want to have specific
appointments made for repair technician visits. In other cultures, specific appointments
are not an expectation.

Development
Development of training materials is the phase when pencil meets the paper and actual
training materials and coursework are created. Courses and training materials may
already be available off the shelf, or a customized or modified creation may occur. For
training that is highly specific and customized to the organization, a course may be
developed from scratch to fit the specific objectives to reach the desired outcome, such
as in a new product launch for a product that has never before existed. An example
might be the new Apple Watch.


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